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About GraphQL GraphQL is a query language and runtime engine. A query language describes how one can communicate with an information system. A runtime is responsible for returning data for queries. GraphQL was developed as an alternative to REST. The difference is that in REST, we collect data from many endpoints, while each endpoint always returns the same set of data. In contrast, GraphQL uses one endpoint that only returns the necessary data each time. GraphQL provides data in a predefined schema. The schema defines what queries are allowed and what types of data can be fetched. Knowing the schema before querying, the client can be sure the server will be able to respond to the query, and the client can predict what will be returned. One does not need to fetch the entire schema – you can fetch only the selected fragment. GraphQL also has some limitations, for instance, it is difficult to cache data and transfer file-like data. 
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The validation of the input data is a very common problem that we face almost every day. The correct and expected input is very important in order to achieve proper and expected execution flow.
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The service objects layer is a crucial part of the Ruby on Rails backend. This is the places where most of the business logic is stored. This is the places that we want to keep in the best possible shape. For that purpose, I have started using some of the gems from the Dry-rb stack. In this blog post, I will try to share with you some solutions based on the Dry-rb gems that can make your services even better.
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WebAssembly, or WASM for short, is a performance-optimized solution enabling web applications to run at near-native speed. It is a cutting-edge technology with the current state as an MVP (minimum viable product), not the final version of WASM. Even though the standard is still evolving and new features are being added, the current, MVP version of WASM is guaranteed to be compatible with future releases. 
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How can we read files in Ruby? * Testing file generated by running a following command: ❯ openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -new -nodes -x509 -days 3650 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem It has a clearly defined the beginning and the end of the file which fill be useful while reading the files.
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The materialized view is a powerful database solution that allow us to access the view’s data faster by “caching” its response. The materialized view query is executed once when the view is created, not when accessing the data as it is with regular database views. It is a great and worth using feature when we do not need a view to return the most recent data or we know that we will more often read the view’s data than we will modify them. There is only one small problem while using such view: we need to handle the refresh of its data manually.
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Postgres complex data types (hstore, json, jsonb, array) are very useful tools in database design. Having multiple values under one attribute definitely has its use cases. There are plenty of articles that compare the NoSQL database performance to the PostgreSQL JSON datatypes. Their results show the maturity of tools provided by this database management system. So which data types are best suited for what?
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 Most of the time when we need to query some data from our database in a Rails based application, we just use ActiveRecord query interface. When the query is more complicated, we write it using SQL language. Sometimes it may be needed to use such SQL query in more than one place. In such cases (to better stick to the DRY principle), we can consider using a database view. In this blog post, I will present what are the database views and how to easily use them in Ruby on Rails application with the help of a Scenic gem.
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Ruby on Rails is a compact, elegant, and versatile way to build web applications. This highly popular framework offers developers a vast library of features and comes with a range of benefits, like being time-efficient, cost-effective, consistent, and scalable. It is also renowned as easy to learn, but that’s not to say that it doesn’t come without any pitfalls. Here, we take a look at one of the lesser-known quirks of Ruby on Rails that could trip you up, and show you how to avoid it. You never know, it might just save your day!
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Every program receives some kind of input data. It can by anything - from variables, command line options, HTML web forms, and configuration files to binary data. All of this needs to be checked to prevent unexpected errors from happening. Although ActiveModel::Validations is great for web apps and simple models, it isn't very flexible for other types of validation and complex dependencies.
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