Pros and Cons of Java Development in 2023

Photo of Kacper Rafalski

Kacper Rafalski

Sep 12, 2023 • 11 min read
programming team

Java, a versatile and widely-used programming language, has been at the forefront of software development for over two decades.

Its unique features and performance capabilities have made it a go-to choice for a multitude of projects. But like any technology, it’s essential to consider its pros and cons. In this blog post, we will explore the advantages and challenges of Java development, helping you make an informed decision for your next project.

Key Takeaways

  • Java is a popular choice for developers due to its easy learning process, object-oriented programming, security features and platform independence.

  • Java presents certain drawbacks such as performance limitations and licensing costs which should be taken into consideration when deciding whether it is the best language for a project.

  • Ideal use cases include web applications, mobile apps, cloud computing projects and big data initiatives.

Java programming language - overview

Java, introduced in 1995 by Sun Microsystems, has become a prominent object-oriented programming language in the software development domain. Its most distinguishing characteristic is the ability to run on a variety of platforms, thanks to its Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) approach. This approach allows developers to craft java code once and execute it on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

Over the years, Java has gained a reputation for being user-friendly and portable, with automatic memory management and a robust Java runtime environment. Its ecosystem consists of three primary components: the Java Development Kit (JDK), the Java Class Library, and the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). These components make Java stand out among other native programming languages and contribute to its widespread adoption in the software industry.

Advantages of Java

Java offers several benefits that make it a popular choice for developers, including:

  • A straightforward learning process

  • Object-oriented programming

  • Heightened security

  • Platform independence

Its simplicity and extensive support from the developer community make it an attractive option for both beginners and experienced programmers.

However, Java also presents some challenges. When selecting a language for your project, both the benefits and drawbacks of Java should be taken into account. We’ll further explore these specific aspects of Java in the subsequent sections, illuminating its appropriateness for different use cases.

Easy-to-learn language

Java, a general purpose programming language, has a simple syntax and is a high level programming language that makes it an accessible choice for new and experienced developers alike. Its human-like language and straightforward learning curve make it easier to grasp compared to other languages with more complex code and machine-level language.

A wealth of online tutorials, courses, and documentation are at your fingertips to help newcomers get a kick-start with Java. Its prevalent industry use offers plenty of scope for practice and skill enhancement. Devotion and repetition make mastering Java an achievable goal for budding programmers.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

Java’s object-oriented programming (OOP) approach is one of its most significant advantages, facilitating code organization, maintenance, and scalability. OOP allows developers to define data types and structures, as well as the functions applied to them, in a way that mimics real-world objects.

This approach makes it easier to manage large codebases by dividing them into smaller, named segments. In contrast, procedural programming requires developers to follow a sequence of instructions using variables and functions, which can be cumbersome and challenging to maintain.

Enhanced Security

Java provides robust security features that make it a popular choice for developing secure applications. These features include:

  • Encapsulation

  • Inheritance

  • Abstraction

  • Built-in Security Manager that enables developers to specify access rules

Encapsulation involves concealing the implementation details of a class from other objects, while inheritance enables the construction of new classes from existing ones. Abstraction, on the other hand, entails obscuring the details of an object from the user. These features, combined with Java’s stringent security policies, make it a secure language for various applications.

Platform Independence

One of the most cherished features of Java is its platform independence, which empowers developers to compose code once and execute it on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This feature is known as the Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) approach, and it enables Java programs to be executed on any system that has Java installed. Additionally, Java supports remote method invocation, allowing for seamless communication between distributed applications.

The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) serves as an abstraction layer between the code and the hardware, allowing Java programs to be executed on any platform that supports a JVM. This independence makes Java a popular choice for:

  • web applications

  • mobile apps

  • cloud computing

  • big data projects

These types of projects often require cross-platform compatibility.

Java Disadvantages

Despite its numerous benefits, Java grapples with some challenges like performance constraints, licensing expenses, and GUI development complications, which are some cons of Java. These difficulties may hinder Java’s effectiveness in specific situations and must be assessed when considering the language for particular projects.

In the upcoming sections, we will delve deeper into these challenges, offering insights on when Java might not be the ideal pick for your project and when other languages could prove a better fit.

Performance Limitations

Compared to native languages like C++, Java’s performance can lag due to its virtual machine and memory management. Factors such as garbage collection, inadequate caching configurations, and thread deadlocks can impede performance if not properly managed.

Furthermore, interpretation and Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation can potentially cause performance issues due to the time required to interpret and compile code. It’s essential to consider these performance limitations when determining if Java is the right choice for your project.

Licensing Costs

For businesses, Java’s licensing expenses, particularly Oracle’s commercial license stipulations, could be a cause for concern. Oracle announced a charging policy for the commercial license of Java 11 and higher in January 2019. They will be imposing a fee on the same..

Businesses should be aware of the potential licensing costs associated with Java and evaluate whether the benefits of using the language outweigh these costs. It’s essential to consider the long-term financial implications of choosing Java for your project, particularly if alternative languages offer similar functionality without the associated licensing fees.

GUI Development Challenges

Developing a GUI with Java can present challenges due to inconsistencies and a lack of native aesthetics. While there are frameworks available to assist in GUI development, they may not be sufficiently advanced to construct complex GUIs.

The challenges Java faces in GUI development make it less suitable for complex desktop applications with a native look and feel. Alternative languages and tools might be more appropriate for creating such applications, offering better performance and user experience.

Java in Action: Ideal Use Cases

Java excels in multiple scenarios, including web and mobile apps,cloud computing, and big data projects.

Its distributed nature, support for multithreading, and extensive libraries and frameworks make it a strong contender for projects that require flexibility, scalability, and robustness, especially as it supports socket programming.

In the ensuing sections, we will examine these use cases and discuss why Java is a fitting choice for each, emphasizing its strengths and abilities in various situations.

Web Applications

Java is widely used for developing web applications, thanks to its extensive libraries and frameworks. These resources simplify the development process, allowing java developers to focus on building robust, feature-rich applications that can handle a variety of backend functions.

In addition to its comprehensive ecosystem, Java offers powerful features such as platform independence, object-oriented programming, security, and scalability.

All of them make it an ideal choice for web application development.

Mobile Apps

Java is a popular choice for mobile app development, particularly for Android applications.

Java’s extensive support from the developer community ensures that resources and assistance are readily available, simplifying the development process and allowing developers to create high-quality mobile applications.

Cloud Computing

Java’s platform independence and scalability make it suitable for cloud computing projects. The Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) approach allows Java applications to be deployed across various cloud environments without the need for code modifications, providing flexibility and cost savings for businesses.

Additionally, Java offers robust security features, as well as integration options with web services, databases, and messaging systems, making it an ideal choice for cloud-based applications that require high levels of reliability and performance.

Big Data Projects

Java’s features that make it suitable for big data projects include its distributed nature, support for multithreading, ability to process large amounts of data efficiently, and scalability.

These features make Java a strong contender for handling the complex requirements of big data applications.

Furthermore, Java’s extensive ecosystem of libraries and frameworks, such as Hadoop, can simplify the development of big data applications, ensuring that developers have access to the tools and resources necessary for building robust, high-performance solutions.

When Java May Not Be the Best Choice?

Java might not always be the optimal choice, such as for complex desktop GUIs or when other languages offer more suitable features. In these cases, it’s essential to evaluate the specific requirements of the project and consider whether Java’s strengths outweigh its challenges.

In the subsequent sections, we will investigate situations where Java might not be the best fit and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of deploying alternative languages in these instances.

Complex Desktop GUIs

The challenges associated with Java’s GUI development render it less appropriate for intricate desktop applications that require a native look and feel. Its limitations in performance, memory management, platform compatibility, and native look and feel can make it difficult to create a seamless and efficient user experience in complex desktop applications.

Alternative languages and tools, such as C++ or C#, may offer better performance and a more native look and feel, making them more appropriate for complex desktop GUIs. In this context, considering other programming languages, like efficient programming languages or a distributed languages, could be an option as well.

Alternative Languages

For specific tasks like data analysis or machine learning, alternative languages such as Python or R might be more fitting. These languages offer better performance, increased flexibility, and simpler development compared to Java, making them more suitable for certain projects.

However, it’s essential to carefully consider the trade-offs between Java and alternative languages, taking into account factors such as learning curve, community support, and security, before deciding on the most suitable language for your project.


Java is a versatile and powerful programming language that offers numerous advantages, such as an easy learning curve, object-oriented programming, enhanced security, and platform independence. However, it also faces challenges, including performance limitations, licensing costs, and GUI development difficulties. In various use cases, such as web applications, mobile apps, cloud computing, and big data projects, Java excels and proves to be an ideal choice.

When considering Java for your project, it’s essential to weigh its pros and cons against the specific requirements of your project and explore alternative languages if necessary. By doing so, you can ensure that you make the best choice for your project, maximizing its potential for success.

Frequently Asked Questions

What makes Java an easy-to-learn language?

Java's straightforward syntax and strongly-typed structure make it an easy language to learn, as it quickly guides your thinking in the right direction.

What are the benefits of Java's object-oriented programming approach?

Java's object-oriented programming approach offers numerous benefits, such as facilitating code organization, maintenance, and scalability. These benefits are especially useful for larger projects, as they make it easier to keep track of the code and make changes as needed. Object-oriented programming also makes it easier to debug code, as


Photo of Kacper Rafalski

More posts by this author

Kacper Rafalski

Kacper is an experienced digital marketing manager with core expertise built around search engine...
Software development services  Design, build and scale software solutions Discover how!

We're Netguru!

At Netguru we specialize in designing, building, shipping and scaling beautiful, usable products with blazing-fast efficiency

Let's talk business!

Trusted by: